Avocado (Persea Americana) is a fruit tree native of tropical America, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae. It originated in south-central Mexico and Central America, possibly from more than one wild species. There is evidence that avocados were cultivated in Mexico as early as 500 B.C.
The avocado plant grows up to 9 to 18 m high with a diameter ranging from 30 to 60 cm. The avocado fruit is classified botanically as a large berry containing a single large seed. This fruit is also considered the most nutritious among fruits, with an important contribution to the human diet. Avocados are a great source of vitamins C, E, K, and B-6, as well as riboflavin, niacin, folate, pantothenic acid, magnesium and potassium. They provide lutein, beta-caroten, and omega-3 fatty acids.
Avocado has three main types - Mexican, Guatemalan and West Indian that are known worldwide and over 500 varieties that vary in fruit size, texture, shape and maturity rate. Depending on the varieties, avocado may thrive and provide the best yields in climatic conditions ranging from the true tropical to warmer parts of the temperate zone.
Farmers Pain Points
Soil: Light soils are favored. If soil is heavy a draining solution is needed.
Climate: Avocados will need a specific climate. For example, frost might cause severe damage to the crop.
Rootstocks: Soil conditions will influence the type of root stock needed.
Planting density: In recent years there was an increase in planting density, this depends on the plot, machinery and cultivar used.
Cross-Pollination: Plot will need pollinating cultivars. It is crucial to choose the right pollinator for the right cultivar.
Pests and diseases: Redbay Ambrosia beetle, may attack avocado trees and infect them with Raffaelea quercivora. Avoiding the borer is important in order to guarantee high yield..
Water: Water demand is relatively high, although avocado can be grown in arid areas.
Comprehensive irrigation and fertigation systems: Drip, micro sprinklers or sprinklers irrigation systems providing complete head control system (hydrants, pressure control, water filtration, air and check valves), dosing and control systems, monitoring equipment.
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