Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum), also called sweet pepper or capsicum, are a cultivar group of annual or perennial plants in the family Solanaceae grown for their thick edible fruits. bell pepper is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable crops in the world. A raw bell pepper provides approximately 97% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin C. It can vary in color from green to orange, yellow, or red (rare varieties of white, brown, and purple also exist). The bell peppers differ in color based on their degree of ripeness, set by the time the peppers have kept maturing on the plant.
The green varieties are harvested before the appearance of red or yellow pigment, generally about 60–80 days after planting. and are bitter in flavour.
The red bell pepper is in the most ripen stage. It has the sweetest taste and contains the highest concentrations of vitamin C, A, and beta carotene compared to the other varieties. Botanically, bell peppers are classified as berry fruits since they are produced from a flowering plant and contain seeds. The bell pepper plants are short bushes up to 1 m tall with woody stems and elliptical, smooth-edged leaves.
The plant produces white or purple bell-shaped flowers (2.5 cm in diameter), which become fruits in about 3-6 weeks after flowering. The fruits are hollow, with a smooth outer skin and seeds clustering in the center, clinging to a white membrane along the walls. Pepper plants are usually grown as annuals in temperate regions for only one growing season and required warm soil temperatures (around 29°C) and warm air temperatures (18-27°C) with full sunlight to thrive. The soil should be moisture-retentive but well-drained, rich in organic matter and with a pH of 5.5 to 6.8. Best slightly sandy or loamy soils.
Farmers Pain Points
Climate: A very sensitive crop to temp/light/humidity, the right varieties need to be matched to the area.
Water: Salinity is a major factor with this crop, as well as microelements in the water.
Pest and Diseases: Viruses are a major factor in getting good quality. The international standards of pesticide use, is less popular and the use of biological pest control is the preferred way.
Post-Harvest: In order to get fresh and great products to the market, we need to overcome the evaporation of water from the fruit as well as the germination of fungi on the crops.
Packing: Products must be harvested in the optimum time and brought to the packing house to be cooled to the right temperature and kept at the right humidity. After cleaning and sorting the products, the best value is usually in small and smart packages that will be sent to the supermarkets / clients without stopping in another station. Tracking the whole chain from field to customer is crucial to being cost-effective and tracking claims/recalls. The whole operation must be registered with an international standard.
Characterizing the requirements for growing bell peppers in your region.
Identifying the best varieties for growing conditions and growers’ needs.
Plot design – planting density and irrigation system.
Fertilizing program to achieve maximum yield potential.
Pesticiding protocol and guidelines.
Post-harvest guidance and solutions.
Ongoing technical support to ensure best results and customers’ satisfaction